Footnotes and references
1 2007-2014 GHX Data on file with Cardinal Health
2 The FDA has determined that certain powdered gloves "present a substantial risk of illness that cannot be corrected by a change in labeling." Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm491466
3 Deadly Powder on Medical Gloves: a Wake-up Call to the Food and Drug Administration. Richard F. Edlich, MD, PhD. 2012. Available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=9zM71zEaH3QC&pg=PA103&lpg=PA103&dq=germany+bans+powdered+gloves&source=bl&ots= 7OlJ7XgP_R&sig=7-wQAWBR2rf96WHA8xiHPohbh-k&hl=en&sa=X&ei=-RXyU4yCNIuOyASI2YDwAg&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=germany%20bans%20powdered% 20gloves&f=false
4 AORN Guideline for a Safe Environment of Care from 2015 Guidelines for Perioperative Practice
5 Edlich R., Watkins F. Glove powder Facts and fiction. Surgical Services Management, February 1997; 3(2): 47-50.
6 2014 GHX Data on file with Cardinal Health
7 Hunt T., et al. Starch powder contamination of surgical wounds. Archives of Surgery 1994; 129: 825-828.
8 FDA 21 CFR Parts 878, 880, and 895. Banned Devices; Proposal to Ban Powdered Surgeon’s Gloves, Powdered Patient Examination Gloves and Absorbable Powder for Lubricating Surgeon’s Gloves. II. Evaluation of Data and Information Regarding Glove Powder 15176 – 15183. Federal Register, Vol. 81, No. 55, March 22, 2016. Available at: https://federalregister.gov/a/2016-06360. Accessed May 2016.
9 Cost to have staff on disability due to latex - Travel Staffing News, Stephen Halasnik, March 2010.
10 Cost of OR teardowns - Estimates from Donna McDaniel, Director of Surgical Services and Carol Miller, Peri-operative Services Education. Face-to-face interview, June 2011.Available at: http://ortoday.com/a-latex-free-approach-to-operating-room-savings/
11 Cost to treat anaphylactic reaction due to latex - Becker's Hospital Review, 11 Statistics on Average Hospital Costs per Stay Medscape, Anaphylaxis Treatment & Management, S Shahzad, MD.
12 Cost to remove powder - International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol. 74 (4) p. 267-271, Glove powder in the hospital environment consequences for healthcare workers.
13 Average cost of surgical site infection - Eyal Zimlichman, MD, MSc, Health Care Associated Infections: A Meta-analysis of Costs and Financial Impact on the US Health Care System, JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(22):2039-2046
14 Cost to treat a sharps injury - CDC: Preventing Needlesticks and Other Sharps Injuries, O'Malley, Costs of Management of Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids, July 2007.
15 Cost to treat a sharps injury - Studies show that double-gloving may lower the risk of sharps injury and infection. AORN Guideline for Sterile Technique from 2015 Guidelines for Perioperative Practice.
16 NIOSH. NIOSH Publication No. 97-135: Preventing allergic reactions to natural rubber latex in the workplace. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/97-1
17 US Department of Labor. OSHA. Healthcare wide hazards: latex allergy. Available at: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/hospital/hazards/latex/latex.html
20 Edlich, RM. Citizen's Petition to Food and Drug Administration to Ban Cornstarch Powder on Medical Gloves. Letter. 2008, Portland.
21 Edelstam, J. et al. Glove powder in the hospital environment – consequences for healthcare workers. Int. Arch. Environ Health 2002; vol. 75: 267-271
22 As compared to powdered surgical gloves.
23 Survey conducted by third-party market research firm. Data on file with Cardinal Health.